端砚

时间:2019-12-22 10:28:42         来源:未知

端砚

砚亦称为研,中国传统手工艺品之一,砚与笔、墨、纸合称中国传统的文房四宝,是中国书法的必备用具。砚材的运用也极为广泛,其中以山东青州的红丝砚、广东肇庆的端砚、安徽歙县的歙砚、甘肃卓尼的洮河砚最为突出,称“四大名砚”。

砚 is also called Yan, one of the traditional Chinese handicrafts. 砚 and pen, ink, and paper together are called the four treasures of traditional Chinese study. It is an indispensable tool for Chinese calligraphy. The use of wood materials is also very extensive. Among them, the red silk magpie in Qingzhou, Shandong, the Duan magpie in Zhaoqing, Guangdong, the magpie in Pixian, Anhui, and the Luohe magpie in Zhuoni, Gansu are the most prominent.

   

砚台历经秦汉、魏晋,至唐代起,各地相继发现适合制砚的石料,开始以石为主的砚台制作。其中采用山东的红丝砚、广东端州的端石、安徽歙州的歙石及甘肃临洮的洮河石制作的砚台,被分别称作红丝砚、端砚、歙砚、洮河砚。史书将红丝砚、端、歙、临洮砚称作四大名砚。清末,又将山西的澄泥砚与端、歙、临洮,并列为中国四大名砚。也有人主张,以天然砚石雕制的鲁砚中的徐工石砚代替澄泥砚,合称四大名砚。

Huantai went through the Qin and Han dynasties, Wei and Jin, and since the Tang Dynasty, various places have successively found suitable stone materials for making junipers, and began to make stone-based ones. Among them, the platform made of red silk crickets in Shandong, Duanshi in Duanzhou, Guangdong, Luzhou in Anhui, and Caohe stone in Lintong, Gansu, are called red silk crickets, Duanji, crickets, and Caohejing. The history books refer to the red silk 砚, 歙, 歙, and 洮砚 洮砚 as the four famous 砚. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the Chengni magpie in Shanxi and Duan, 歙, and Lintong were listed as the four famous magpies in China. It has also been suggested that the Xuangong stone clams from Lu Xun carved from natural stone clams replace Chengni clams, collectively known as the four famous clams..

作为四大名砚之一的端砚,发展至今已有1000多年的历史了。端砚其材料取于广东肇庆高要县东南端溪之烂河山(又称斧柯山)因其“体重而轻,质刚而柔,摸之寂寞无纤响,按之如小儿肌肤,温软嫩而不滑”且有不损毫,宜发墨的特点。自唐代问世以来,端砚便颇受文人学士青睐。加上纹理绮丽,各具名目,加工技艺亦愈纷繁,地位越来越高,以致升到我国石砚之首,长盛不衰。

As one of the four famous names, it has more than 1,000 years of history. Duanxiong's materials are taken from the rotten rivers and mountains (also known as Axe Keshan) in the southeastern stream of Gaoyao County, Zhaoqing, Guangdong. Because of its "light weight, rigid and soft texture, it feels lonely and has no fiber ringing. It is like a child's skin, soft Tender but not slippery ", and has no damage, should be ink. Since the advent of the Tang Dynasty, Duan Yan has been favored by scholars. Coupled with the beautiful texture, each with its own name, the processing technology has become more and more complicated, and its status has become higher and higher, so that it has risen to the top of China's stone gangue and has a long and prosperous life.

端砚有细润如玉犹如小孩皮肤、磨墨无声、贮水不耗、发墨不损毫、呵气可研墨、研出的墨写字虫不蛀等优点。其中的老坑、坑仔岩、麻子坑、宋坑出产的更好,合称“端砚四大名坑”。其中清代书法家陈龄总结了端砚有“八德”:“一曰历寒不冰,质之温也;二曰贮水不耗,质之润也;三曰研墨无泡,质之柔也;四曰发墨无声,质之嫩也;五曰停墨浮艳,质之细也;六曰护毫加秀,质之腻也;七曰起墨不滞,质之洁也;八曰经久不乏,质之美也。具此八德,古今之文人收为瑰宝,端砚以成为可遇而不可求者也。”

Duanyan has the advantages of being as smooth as jade, like a child's skin, silently rubbing the ink, not consuming water, not damaging the ink, being able to study the ink with breath, and not writing the ink with insects. Among them, Laokeng, Hangzaiyan, Mazikeng, and Songkeng are better produced,

collectively referred to as the "four famous pits of Duanyan." Among them, Chen Ling, a calligrapher of the Qing Dynasty, summarized that Duan Yan had "eight virtues": "One means that the calendar is cold and ice-free, and the quality is warm; the second is that water is not consumed, and the quality is also good; Rou Ye; Fourth, the silent ink, the tenderness of quality; Five, the stop of the ink flamboyant, the fineness of the quality; Sixth, the protection of the Jiajiaxiu, the quality of the greasy; the seventh, the ink is not stagnant, the quality of the clean also; Ba Yue has a long history and beautiful quality. With this virtue, the literati of ancient and modern times have collected it as a treasure, and they have been made to be able to meet but not seek. "

此方端砚是刘先生收藏的珍品,是由广东肇庆制造而出的端砚,此端砚砚台到代,年代久远,造型美观(龙纹状),工艺独特,端砚以石质坚实、润滑、细腻、娇嫩而驰名于世,用端砚研墨不滞,发墨快,研出之墨汁细滑,书写流畅不损毫,字迹颜色经久不变,端砚若佳,无论是酷暑还是严冬,用手按其砚心,砚心湛蓝墨绿,水气久久不干,世所罕见,为砚台中之孤品。收藏价值和升值空间都值得期待。

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